The effects of oil spill on the ecology

Opponents worried about the possible effects of an oil spill on land in a protected habitat.

Effects of oil spills on the environment

Van Nostrand, Y. Natural processes, such as oil-eating bacteria and wave action, also help to disperse and degrade oil, and may be more effective than human efforts Hazen et al. Spills closer to shore and human populations have greater economic impacts and are more expensive to clean. The quantification of both effects and recovery are difficult, particularly when they must be measured against a changing marine environment Figures A and B Wiens, Page Share Cite Suggested Citation:"5 Biological Effects of Oil Releases. Jackson, B. Oil, oil dispersants and related substances in the marine environment. Marine Policy In time, natural processes repair damage caused by such events, returning an ecosystem to its previous functions, albeit potentially comprised of different individual organisms. Marine mammal and bird species, which must regularly pass through the air-water interface to breathe, are particularly vulnerable to oil exposure Peterson et al.

An audit of actual spill response capacity on the West Coast of Canada is needed to identify potential gaps and inform preparedness planning. Ley, and M.

how many animals die from oil spills each year

In between light and heavy oils are many different kinds of medium oils, which will last for some amount of time in the environment and will have different degrees of toxicity.

Maruya et al. Recovery of mussels following long- PHOTO 21 Oil penetrated deeply into burrows in the muddy sediments on tidal flats and marshes along the Persian Gulf.

long term effects of oil spills

Heintz et al. Battelli, S.

How do oil spills affect plants

The comprehensive scope relates to issues beyond emergency response; for instance, to policy debates on allowing increases in oil tanker traffic and to predisaster planning for long-term recovery. Meador et al. Google Scholar Gross, P. Royal Society of Canada Report. Thomas, D. For example, the initial impact of the spill in the Bay of Morlaix, following the Amoco Cadiz spill in , was to kill off populations of the amphipod sand hopper, Ampelisca, which dominated the community [ 46 ]. Ecology and Society 15 1 : Fate of dispersants associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Some of the most important variables, particularly in relation to the Vancouver case study, are identified in the figure and briefly discussed. Boehm, and J.

Although direct property damage is fairly easy to ascertain, causality between oil spills and broader losses in income and market share is difficult to establish.

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Ecology and Society: Consequences of oil spills: a review and framework for informing planning